Thursday, 7 July 2016
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RADIO ADVERTISEMENTS OF FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMES
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Advertising can be traced down to the origin of man. Therefore, it is a phenomenon that has been with the society for a very long time. Although advertising is so popular, it is difficult to come up with a single and an all embracing definition. However some scholars have proffered some definitions, which will be highlighted in this study.
According to academic’s dictionary of mass communication, compiled by Michael Hoffmann (2007). “Advertising is a paid, medicated, form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the future”.
Throwing more light on this, the dictionary of business and finance captures it as any form of paid public announcement or presentation, which is aimed at the promotion of the sake of goods and services, or at gaining acceptance for any idea or point of view.
No wonder Okunna (2002, P.99) Jonathan E. Aliede, says in their more recent and widely accepted definition states thus that, advertising is the non – personal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media. From the above running background, it is obvious that advertising from all indication is usually the easiest means to reach the target consumer directly. Therefore, advertising enables sponsor to reach a substantial segment of their target audience through various media especially print and electronic.
But before casting our research searchlight on the effectiveness of radio advertisement as one of the media on family planning programme advertisement, it is pertinent that we focus this research search light on the history of family planning programme because a people without a history is like a people without a past.
On the other hand, the historical development of man’s desire to control his reproduction is as old as humanity. The WHO (World Health Organization) definition of family planning states that it is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily based on the knowledge, attitudes and responsible decisions by individuals and couples in order to promotes health and welfare of the family group and thus; contribute effectively to the social development of the country. Egyptians as early as 1850 BC described various methods of birth control in scrolls. Aristotle, A Greek Philosopher in the 4th century B.C stated that the state’s best interest would be served by keeping the population stable.
In the early history of African culture, the mother and the infant were separated from the father for prolonged periods of time following childbirths; consequently, this practice ensured a good nutritional period for the infant and abstinence for the mother. The above underscores the fact that family planning is as old as history itself.
In 1797, Jeremy Bentham advocated birth control in England. Giving credence to what Bentham advocated for, Francis place whose dissertation, “Illustrations and proofs of the Principles of Population” published in 1882 made a remarkable impact which proposed contraception to reproduction. Subsequent theories by Thomas Malthins, an Englishman who wrote “An Essay of the Principle of population” in 1798 which stated that poverty was unavoidable because the means of production could not increase as quickly as the population also made an impact.
It is under the above influence that Dr. Aletta Jacobs, in 1881 began the first systematic work in contraception in Holland. She and her medical colleagues gave professional assistance to birth control advocates in other countries. Consequently, their effort saw the light of the day when the first birth control clinic was opened in England by Marie Stopes and society for constructive Birth Control in 1921. Margaret Sanger in her little way in 1916 opened the first family planning clinic, which was closed down 9 days later by the authorities, who were against the consequently was imprisoned. As a result of that, she went on hunger strike for 103 hours. This led the U.S women to demonstrate and make an appeal to the government. These actions led to her release and allowed to carry on with her pioneering work in family planning.
It is from the above background that family planning is defined as; “the control of reckless breeding of children” by Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN). The questions that are still begging for answer is, has the adequate awareness of family planning been made? If yes, to what extent and how has this awareness affected the life of the public in view? Consequently, the above question cannot be adequately addressed without looking into how this awareness is done. This invites us to stand out and cast a look on how Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Enugu as our study carries out this awareness task and how effective has been this task? Since the past is always very important in addressing any problem for a better promising future, it is important to trace how the above named institution came into existence. For this would give us a better stand to address the issue at hand.
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